Steyn made a comeback to international cricket after shoulder and foot injuries when he played in two Tests in Sri Lanka in July but he only took two wickets at a cost of 89.50 runs each.
He has subsequently shown a return to form during a stint with English county Hampshire, taking 20 wickets in five first-class matches at an average of 19.10.
Christiaan Jonker, who made 49 in a promising debut in the third and final Twenty 20 international against India in February, is the only newcomer in the one-day squad.
Batsman David Miller and wicketkeeper-batsman Quinton de Kock have been rested for the one-day series but will play in a three-match Twenty20 series.
Two uncapped batsmen, Gihahn Cloete and Rassie van der Dussen, were included in the Twenty20 squad.
Selection convener Linda Zondi said the squads were part of an ongoing process to assess talent ahead of the World Cup.
“We still have one-day series after this one against Australia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka as we get closer to finalising our likely World Cup squad,” he said.
Faf du Plessis was named as captain of both squads, subject to fitness assessments. He suffered a shoulder injury in Sri Lanka in August and said on his return to South Africa that he would miss the Zimbabwe series rather than return to action too soon.
Cricket South Africa said in a statement that if Du Plessis was not fully fit a replacement captain would be named nearer the time.
One-day squad: Faf du Plessis (captain), Hashim Amla, JP Duminy, Reeza Hendricks, Imran Tahir, Christiaan Jonker, Heinrich Klaasen (wkt), Keshav Maharaj, Aiden Markram, Wiaan Mulder, Lungi Ngidi, Andile Phehlukwayo, Kagiso Rabada, Tabraiz Shamsi, Dale Steyn, Khaya Zondo.
Twenty20 squad: Du Plessis (captain), Gihahn Cloete, Junior Dala, Quinton de Kock (wkt), JP Duminy, Robbie Frylinck, Imran Tahir, Jonker, Klaasen (wkt), David Miller, Ngidi, Dane Paterson, Phehlukwayo, Shamsi, Rassie van der Dussen.
30 First one-day international, Kimberley
3 Second one-day international, Bloemfontein
6 Third one-day international, Paarl
9 First Twenty20 international, East London
12 Second Twenty20 international, Potchefstroom
14 Third Twenty20 international, Benoni